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Minerals

Minerals are chemical compounds and simple substances with a crystalline structure and a clearly defined chemical composition formed as a result of geological and cosmic processes. Minerals are fundamental components of the Earth’s crust. The science that studies minerals, their origins, and species diversity is mineralogy. Classification of Minerals The first broad classification of known …

Graphite

Графіт

Graphite is a mineral from the native elements class, one of the allotropic forms of carbon. Its chemical formula is C. Graphite has a crystalline structure in which carbon atoms form flat hexagons, known as graphene. It occurs in nature as a mineral. It is a gray or black opaque material with a metallic luster. …

Boltzmann constant

Стала Больцмана

The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is a physical constant that defines the relationship between temperature and energy. Her name is derived from the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who made significant contributions to the study of the statistical nature of heat and entropy. The Boltzmann constant is denoted as kB and has a value of …

Interference of light

Interference of light is a physical phenomenon that occurs when two or more light waves intersect or overlap with each other. In the interference of light, both constructive and destructive wave interactions can be observed, leading to various phenomena such as light bands, color variations, or spots on surfaces. To obtain a stable interference pattern, …

Archimedes’ Law

Archimedes’ Law – a fundamental physical law discovered by the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes around the 3rd century BCE. Formulation of the Law For any body submerged in a fluid (or gas) at rest, there acts upon this fluid (or gas) an upward buoyant force or Archimedean force equal to the product of the density …

Pascal’s law

Pascal’s Law is a fundamental law of gas hydrodynamics formulated by the French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal in the 17th century. This law describes how changes in pressure affect gases in closed systems and is one of the fundamental properties of gases. Formulation of the law Pascal’s Law is formulated as follows: Liquids and …

The law of universal gravitation

The Law of Universal Gravitation is a physical law that describes gravitational interaction within the framework of Newtonian mechanics. It was formulated by the English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton in 1687 in his work “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” (Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica). This law describes the force of gravity between objects with masses …

Methanol

Метанол

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with the formula CH3OH. It is one of the simplest alcohols and has a wide range of applications in various industries and scientific fields. Methanol Formula Molecular formula of methanol: CH3OH This substance consists of one carbon atom (C), one oxygen atom …

Ethanol

Ethanol is an organic compound, a representative of the series of monatomic alcohols with the formula C2H5OH, also known as ethyl alcohol. Ethanol Formula Molecular formula of ethanol: C2H5OH Structural formula of ethanol: The structural formula of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) shows how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms are bonded in the molecule. In the structural …

Arithmetic progression

Арифметична прогресія

An arithmetic progression (AP) is a numerical sequence in which each term, starting from the second one, is equal to the sum of the previous term and a constant number ‘d,’ which is called the common difference of the arithmetic progression. If the first term of the arithmetic progression is known as ‘a1’ and the …