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Category «General terms»

Boltzmann constant

Стала Больцмана

The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is a physical constant that defines the relationship between temperature and energy. Her name is derived from the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who made significant contributions to the study of the statistical nature of heat and entropy. The Boltzmann constant is denoted as kB and has a value of …

Pascal’s law

Pascal’s Law is a fundamental law of gas hydrodynamics formulated by the French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal in the 17th century. This law describes how changes in pressure affect gases in closed systems and is one of the fundamental properties of gases. Formulation of the law Pascal’s Law is formulated as follows: Liquids and …

Arithmetic progression

Арифметична прогресія

An arithmetic progression (AP) is a numerical sequence in which each term, starting from the second one, is equal to the sum of the previous term and a constant number ‘d,’ which is called the common difference of the arithmetic progression. If the first term of the arithmetic progression is known as ‘a1’ and the …

Avogadro’s law

Закон Авогадро

The Avogadro’s law is a fundamental law of chemistry formulated by the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro in 1811. This law states that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of any gas contain an equal number of molecules. Avogadro’s law can be expressed as follows: “The volumes of gases formed from the …

An electric arc

An electric arc is one of the types of electric discharge in a gas. An electric arc is a phenomenon where an electric current crosses the space between two electrodes, resulting in a discharge accompanied by a significant release of energy in the form of light, heat, and sound. It occurs due to the excitation …

Natural numbers

Натуральні числа

Natural numbers are numbers used for counting and numbering objects in nature. They start from 1 and have no upper limit. The set of natural numbers is denoted by N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …}. Main properties of natural numbers Operations on natural numbers Operations on natural numbers include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and …



Diffusion is the process of mutual penetration of molecules or atoms of one substance among the molecules or atoms of another, which typically results in the equalization of their concentrations throughout the occupied volume. Diffusion occurs in gases, liquids, solids, and plasmas. The fundamental principles of diffusion include the following: Types of diffusion The main …



Hypotenuse (from Greek ὑποτείνουσα – stretched) is the longest side of a right triangle and is opposite the right angle. It connects the ends of the two catheti and is the side opposite the right angle. It is denoted by the letter “c”. To find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle, the …



Speed is a physical quantity defined as the ratio of the distance traveled to the time taken to cover that distance.

Material point

Матеріальна точка

A material point is a physical model of an object, in which its dimensions and mass can be neglected for the purposes of a given problem. However, the object retains other physical characteristics, such as velocity, acceleration, momentum, and energy.